Mardin
Mardin  is one of the oldest settled areas in Mesopotamia. Excavations done in the 1920s discovered remains in the area that dated to 4000 BCE. The first known civilization were the  Subarians who were then succeeded in 3000 BCE by the  Hurrians. The  Elamites gained control around 2230 BCE. and were followed by the  Babylonians,  Hittites,  Assyrians,  Romans and  Byzantines.
In 692, the Muslim  Ummayads arrived and introduced  Islam. The  Abbasid Caliphate  based in Baghdad replaced them in 824. Factions of the  Seljuk Turks fought each other over Mardin as it changed hands many times before it was finally taken by Nahm ad-din Ilghazi, the bey of the Artukids, a Turkish dynasty founded by the Seljuk Emir Artuk. During the Artukid period, many of Mardin's historic buildings were constructed, including several Mosques, Palaces, Madrassas and Hans.
Mardin was annexed by the  Ottomans under  Selim the Grim. During this time, Mardin was administered by a governor directly appointed under the Ottoman Sultan's authority. In 1923, with the founding of the Republic of Turkey, 
 
Historical landmarks of Mardin
 
Mardin has often considered an open air museum due to its historical architecture, most of which uses the beige colored limestone rock which has been mined for centuries in quarries around the area.
Mosques
  • Great Mosque (Ulu Camii) - Constructed in the 12th century by the ruler of the Artukid Turks, Qutb ad-din Ilghazi. It has a ribbed dome and a minaret that soars above the city. There were originally two minarets, but one collapsed many centuries ago.
  • Melik Mahmut Mosque - built in the 14th century and contains the tomb of its patron Melik Mahmut. It is known for its large gate which features elaborate stonework.
  • Abdüllatif Mosque (Latfiye Mosque) - built in 1371 by the Artukid ruler Abdüllatif. Its minaret was destroyed by Tamerlane's army and rebuilt many centuries later in 1845 by the Ottoman Governor Gürcü Mehmet Pasha.
  • Sehidiye Medresse and Mosque - built in the 1214 by Artuk Aslan. It has an elborate ribbed minaret and an adjoining Madrassa
  • Selsel Mosque
  • Necmettin Gazi Mosque
  • Kasım Tugmaner Mosque
 
 
  • Reyhaniye Mosque - The second largest mosque in Mardin after Ulu Camii. Built in the 15th century, it has a large courtyard and open hallway featuring a fountain.
  • Hamidiye Mosque (Zebuni Mosque) - built before the 15th century, it is named after its patron Seyh Hamit Effendi.
  • Süleymanpasa Mosque
  • Secaattin and Mehmet Mosque
  • Hamza-i Kebir Mosque
  • Şeyh Abdülaziz Mosque
  • Melik Eminettin el-Emin Mosque
  • Sıtra Zaviye Mosque
  • Seyh Salih Mosque
  • Mahmut Türki Mosque
  • Sarı Mosque
  • Seyh Çabuk Mosque - built in the 14th century and contains the tomb of its patron Seyh Cabuk
  • Nizamettin Begaz Mosque
  • Kale Mosque
  • Dinari Mosque
 
Madrassas
 
 
  • Zinciriye Medrese (Sultan Isa Medrese) - Constructed in 1385 by Najm ad-din Isa. The madrasa is part of a complez that includes a Mosque and the tomb of Najm ad-din Isa.
  • Sitti Radviyye Medrese (Hatuniye Medrese) - built in the 12th century in the honor of Sitti Radviyye, the wife of Najm ad-din Alpi. There is a footprint that is claimed to be that to be that of the  Prophet Muhammad.
  • Kasımiye Medrese - construction started by the Artukids and completed by the Akkoyunlu under Sultan Kasım. It has an adjoining Mosque and a Derwish lodge.
 
Churches
 
 
  • Meryemana (Virgin Mary) Church
  • Mor Yusuf (Surp Hovsep) Church
  • Mor Behnam (Kırk Sehitler) Church - built in the name of Behnam and Saro, the two sons of an Aramean (Syriac) rule, dates from 569 AD
  • Deyru'z-Zafaran Monastery 
  • Mor Mihail Church
  • Mor Semune Church
  • Mor Petrus and Pavlus Church
  • Red (Surp Kevork) Church
  • Mor Cercis Church
  • Mor Efraim Monastery.
How to go to Mardin:
You may go to Mardin by bus or by plane from Istanbul. You should definitely taste the delicious kebabs of Mardin.
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